Cognitive Dissonance In Psychology: Definition and Examples

what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

The theory aims to provide insights into relational satisfaction based on the concept of perceived fairness. Identical modes of physiological arousal [38,57] and ACC activation [62,63,66,68] follow from a wide array of divergent inconsistencies that follow from equally unrelated expectations, whether they are ‘low-level’ or ‘high-level,’ ‘negative’ or ‘positive’ [39,58,59]. In the coming years, we believe that it is inevitable that psychologists of differing disciplines will question the utility of offering wholly ‘distinct’ motivational accounts for each instantiation of this general inconsistency compensation phenomenon.

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Two-factor

  • People acquire new information through social learning (Sect. 4.2) that encourages them to help (Berkowitz, Rushton, Staub) or to aggress (Bandura).
  • But cult “love” is conditional upon being a good cult member and is quickly withdrawn if the member makes “trouble” by asking difficult questions.
  • Third, the person could increase the amount of consonant cognition by looking for positive effects of smoking.
  • Researchers have delved into the role of perceived fairness in employee motivation, the dynamics of power balance in romantic partnerships, and the influence of equity perceptions on consumer behavior.
  • As an illustration, a friend may suggest to a person that it would be helpful if the person helps with the political campaign of a candidate in a local election.
  • Adams’ groundbreaking work was influenced by previous research on motivation and fairness, such as the early studies of Kurt Lewin and J.

The inability to explain the perception of fairness was the primary concern for employers and governments, because it underlined the employees’ behaviour and attitudes towards organisations (Adams, 1963). By 1963, Adams drew sufficient evidence from prior literature in sociology and psychology to propose that equity/inequity is not a matter of being overpaid, underpaid or fairly paid, neither is it the subject of an evaluation by purely economic measurements. The evaluation of equity is socially dependent, which entails complex psychological and cognitive processes.

1 Cognitive dissonance theory

Input and output derived from the Social Exchange Theory to refer to costs/contributions that people make and the benefits/rewards of those relations. Input may denote different objects and forms, such as education, experience, skills, social status and effort among other attributes of the person, such as personal characteristics, the level of attractiveness etc. Those inputs are perceived by the contributors and should be measured against their relevance to the particular social exchange situation and should be recognisable by the parties of exchange.

what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

Social Comparison Theory

Psychologist Leon Festinger first described the theory of cognitive dissonance in 1957. According to Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when people’s thoughts and feelings are inconsistent with their behavior, which results in an uncomfortable, disharmonious cognitive dissonance and addiction feeling. First, the relations of people are built on an equity norm (i.e. the expectation that their contributions will be rewarded) (Adams, 1963). Individuals are profit-driven per se and expect the outcome to be equal rewards minus costs.

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It was originally not reserved for animal meat but could be used to describe any type of solid food (Singer, 1995). In earlier hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies, people were quite familiar with the animals they consumed. During the mid-19th century, a combination of factors, such as industrialization, urbanization, population growth and increased purchasing power opened up for large-scale, intensive raising and slaughtering of animals for meat production purposes (Segers, 2012). Consequently, an increasing number of people became largely separated from animals used in food production and, thus, had less contact with the animals they consumed. Examples of such inconsistencies or dissonance could include someone who litters despite caring about the environment, someone who tells a lie despite valuing honesty, or someone who makes an extravagant purchase, but believes in frugality.

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First, the theory aimed to explain how people evaluate the degree to which interpersonal relations are fair. The second objective of the theory was to explain the effect of inequitable relations. To realise the objectives, the determinants/main elements that people consider when they evaluate equity were conceptualised (Adams, 1963; Adams & Freedman, 1976).

what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

Induce effort

what role does cognitive dissonance play in equity theory

Engaging with music and especially joining in group singing helps to generate euphoria, which diminishes perception and critical thinking. Internet web sites, public and private video is available 24/7, and meetings are often live-streamed. Bigger groups have publication departments that churn out newsletters, magazines, journals, CDs, DVDs, podcasts, blogs, apps, and other media. Famous people are quoted, often without their permission and out of context, but in a way that supports the credibility of the group. The Moonies were able to boast that former British Prime Minister Ted Heath had attended their conferences, although it seems that he treated these as paid holidays. Ethical dissonance is the mental discord related to a contradiction between the desire to uphold a moral self-image and engaging in unethical behavior.

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  • Mind control groups systematically indoctrinate members to distrust critics, former members, and all and any negative media reports.
  • By better understanding the consequences of perceived inequities in an organization, researchers and business stakeholders can identify potential factors of social conflict, and increase the degree of control that they exercise.
  • It has been argued that the response to under-reward may be different to what is predicted by the theory, if the person chose to be under-rewarded (e.g. turning down a lucrative job in a pursuit of another career with a lower salary).

10.3.2 Theories of Persuasion

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